Interpretive Summary: Grape seed procyanidin extract inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis of porcine adipocytes in vitro.
By: Surely Wallace
In an article published in July 2018 in the Journal of Animal Science, researchers looked at the effects grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) had on the growth and development of piglet fat cells in an in vitro setting. The authors hypothesized that GSPE would affect the lipid synthesis and metabolism of the studied fat cells.
Increased subcutaneous fat tissue in pigs negatively affects feed conversion and has detrimental effects on production. The authors studied GSPE, a natural plant flavonoid, because it had previously been shown to limit production of new fats cells in rat studies.
In this study, adipose fat tissue was collected from the necks and backs of five 3-day old Meishan piglets. Preadipocyte cells were incubated in cell culture with different concentrations of 99.9% pure GSPE as follows: 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL and 0 μg/mL control. The authors did not use higher concentrations due to observed morphological changes in pig cells that suggested toxicity. Cells were treated with GSPE on day 0 and harvested at day 11.
Results indicated that GSPE did have a dose-dependent effect on pig fat cells. Adipocyte differentiation, mRNA expression, and cell differentiation were looked at.
Oil Red-O staining was used to determine adipocyte differentiation (via quantification of intracellular lipids and triglycerides). Starting at 25 μg/mL GSPE, a significant reduction in intracellular lipids was noted. At 50 and 100 μg/mL GSPE, a significant reduction in both intracellular lipids and triglycerides was noted, compared to control. The most pronounced effect was seen at 100 μg/mL; this concentration was also used to determine effects of GSPE on mRNA expression. Compared to the control, expression of some genes associated with increased adiposity (PPARγ, FABP4) were reduced, while one gene associated with reduced adiposity (Pref-1) was increased. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, which can increase adiposity, was downregulated in the GSPE-treated cells. The cell differentiation cycle also had a higher percentage of fat cells in G0/G1 phase, than S1, when treated with GSPE.
In conclusion, this study provides preliminarily evidence that GSPE at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL may potentially have beneficial effects on fat cell differentiation, mRNA expression, and cell differentiation in pig cells, in vitro. The results of this study suggest that feed supplemented with GSPE may potentially also affect adipose tissue accumulation in growing pigs. However, in vivo studies to look these potential and hypothesized effects of GSPE on adiposity in live pigs are needed in order to support this study’s in vitro findings.
To view the article, “Grape seed procyanidin extract inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis of porcine adipocytes in vitro,” visit the Journal of Animal Science.