Interpretive Summary: Effects of phytogenic feed additives on cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.
By: Surely Wallace
The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), using pig cells. Antibiotics have been traditionally used to promote growth in livestock, although have increasingly been placed under restriction or banned in many countries.
Therefore, the authors of this research paper published in the September 2018 issue of the Journal of Animal Science looked at phytochemicals as potential replacements to AGP. Antibiotics are believed to promote growth by their anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties are also characteristic of phytochemicals.
This study performed in vitro work on intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Treatment with the AGP tylosin (TYL) was compared with phytochemicals, including: plant-derived feed additives (PFA Digestarom DC), and the extracts of grape seed (GRS), licorice (LIC), menthol (MENT), methyl salicylate (MES), oak bark (OAK), oregano essential oil (ORE), and a plant powder mix (PLA). Oxidative stress was induced in the IPEC-J2 cells by exposures to hydrogen peroxide and inflammation was induced by the cytokine TNF-α. An untreated control received no exposures. Targeted anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory genes were identified with real time PCR, and cellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) were assessed using a probe.
Results indicated that PFA, LIC, ORE and GRS had a significant effect on reducing cellular ROS. Targeted anti-oxidative genes were not significantly different in any of the treatments. Beneficial changes to expression of anti-inflammatory genes were noted with PFA and ORE.
This study helps to clarify mechanisms and explain why phytochemicals may promote growth, via modulating cellular ROS and anti-inflammatory genes, in an in vitro setting. Further studies looking at these effects in vivo would be required to better understand the practical application of PFA and other phytochemicals as potential replacements to AGP.
To view the full article, “Effects of phytogenic feed additives on cellular oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in intestinal porcine epithelial cells,” visit the Journal of Animal Science.